Near Field Communication, or more commonly known difference between security and non security investment NFC, is a subset of RFID that limits the range of communication to within 10 centimeters or 4 inches. RFID uses radio frequency waves that are either passive, active, or a combination of both.
Active RFID tags have a power source that helps extend their range even further while passive devices rely on the energy that it receives from the interrogating device to send its own information. RF waves are used to transmit information across very long distances, and RFID is no different. The RF waves can reach very long distances especially when powered. This kind of range is very desirable in certain applications like animal tracking where the animal being tracked might move a couple of kilometers. Objects that are tagged with NFC are usually passive because it does not require that much range. Some have even employed shielding to further reduce the chance of other people being able to read the information.